What is El Niño?

El Niño and La Niña are officially defined as sustained sea surface temperature anomalies of magnitude greater than 0.5°C across the central tropical Pacific Ocean. When the condition is met for a period of less than five months, it is classified as El Niño or La Niña conditions; […]

El Niño Ready Nations (ENRNs): The Concept

What is an “El Niño Ready Nation?” A Nation whose government takes El Niño occurrences as serious quasi-periodic threats and seeks to enact policies to protect its citizens, their livelihoods, and properties—both public and private–can be considered an El Niño-ready nation (ENRN).   El Niño is a recurring phenomenon […]